Daily ReCAP May 11, 2017

Lauren Santye, Assistant Editor
Published Online: Thursday, May 11th, 2017
Chronic: Dual Function Peptide May Provide Treatment for Type 1 and 2 Diabetes
Scientists have identified dual peptide PGLP-1 that promotes insulin secretion and inhibits gluconeogenesis. The findings were published in the FASEB Journal, and could potentially improve glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes, as well as ameliorate insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. For the study, investigators created 6 GLP-1 analogues and screened to find the candidate PGLP-1 in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that in addition to PGLP-1 acting as a GLP-1RA, it also produces GLP-1(9-38) to inhibit gluconeogenesis, which protects β cells and lowers blood glucose. “This work reveals that the gluconeogenesis pathway is subject to effective pharmacological control by this peptide,” said Thoru Pederson, PhD, editor in chief of the FASEB Journal. “Despite great strides in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes over the years, each new finding like this is most welcome.”
Acute: Zinc Lozenges May Speed Up Recovery Rate from Common Cold
Zinc acetate lozenges may increase the recovery rate from a common cold by 3-fold, according to a meta-analysis of 3 randomized controlled trials. The zinc dosages in the trials were between 80 mg and 92 mg per day, substantially higher than the recommended daily zinc intake. On the fifth day, 70% of zinc lozenge patients recovered compared with 27% of patients in the placebo arm. Although the findings show promise, many zinc lozenges on the market have too low doses of zinc or they contain substances that bind zine ions, such as citric acid. The investigators noted that optimal formulation of zinc lozenges and the best frequency of administration needs to be studied further. Additionally, they advise patients with the common cold to test individually whether the lozenges are helpful for them. “Given the strong evidence of efficacy and the low risk of adverse effects, common cold patients may already be encouraged to try zinc acetate lozenges not exceeding 100 mg of elemental zinc per day for treating their colds.”
Preventive: Tamoxifen Prevents Weight Gain, Protects Against Type 2 Diabetes
A common breast cancer drug may protect against obesity-related metabolic disorders. In a study published in the American Journal of Pathology, investigators found that tamoxifen reduced food intake and prevented fat accumulation, insulin resistance, and fatty liver deposits in mice. “Altogether, the present study first suggests that the metabolic effects of tamoxifen, as well as other selective modulators of ERα, deserve to be cautiously reconsidered in women, according to their menopausal status,” said Pierre Gourdy, MD, PhD. “It also opens new perspectives for the treatment of obesity-related complications toward a pharmacologic strategy eliciting selective ERα-AF1 activation.”

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